Particles

Particles

Grammatical particles are words that have no lexical value on their own, but associate with other words to mark functions such as case, mood, or tense.

Some linguists define particles as words that cannot be inflected, and by that definition many Western languages such as English and German can be said to have particles. However, they typically are used to refer to classes of words found in Eastern languages such as Chinese, Korean and Japanese.

In languages that extensively use particles, such as English, they can be thought of as replacing prepositions and articles, though they typically have a even wider role. Tagging entire sentences as interrogative or emphatic for example, is also a role they take on.

Examples

Examples

Play and
and
Play Do you understand?
Do you understand?
Play to
to
Play by
by
Play from
from
Play in
in
Play on
on
Play at
at
Play must
must
Play towards
towards
Play also
also
Play too
too
Play topic marker
topic marker
Play subject marker
subject marker
Play direct object marker
direct object marker
Play indirect object marker
indirect object marker
Play origin marker
origin marker
Play limit marker
limit marker
Play means marker
means marker
Play destination marker
destination marker
Play possessive marker
possessive marker
Play as for
as for
Play question marker
question marker
Play Is it okay?
Is it okay?
Play complement marker
complement marker
Play right?
right?
Play until
until
Play list and example marker
list and example marker
Play agreed
agreed
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