Particles

助詞

Introduction Introduction
Grammatical particles are words that have no lexical value on their own, but associate with other words to mark functions such as case, mood, or tense.

Some linguists define particles as words that cannot be inflected, and by that definition many Western languages such as English and German can be said to have particles. However, they typically are used to refer to classes of words found in Eastern languages such as Chinese, Korean and Japanese.

In languages that extensively use particles, such as Japanese, they can be thought of as replacing prepositions and articles, though they typically have a even wider role. Tagging entire sentences as interrogative or emphatic for example, is also a role they take on.
Examples
Play など
nado
among other things and such
Play
ka
question marker
Play
to
and
Play
ni
indirect object marker to in at on by
Play
no
possessive marker
Play
ha / wa
topic marker as for
Play
he
destination marker to towards
Play
mo
too also
Play
ya
list and example marker and
Play
wo
direct object marker
Play
ga
subject marker but
Play
de
means marker by at

Related Lessons

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